3D bio-printing is the process of generating spatially controlled cell patterns in 3D, where cell function and viability are preserved within the printed constructed. Using 3D bioprinting for fabricating biological constructs typically involves dispensing cells on a biocompatible scaffold using a successive layer-by-layer approach to generate tissue-like three-dimensional structures. Given that every tissue in the body is naturally compartmentalized of different cell types, many technologies for printing these cells vary in their ability to ensure stability and viability of the cells during the manufacturing process. Some of the methods that are used for 3D bioprinting of cells are photolithography, magnetic bioprinting, stereolithography, and cell extrusion.
Organovo which is called as an early-stage medical laboratory and research company, designs and develops functional, three dimensional human tissue for medical research and therapeutic applications. The company utilizes its NovoGen MMX Bioprinter for 3D bioprinting. Organovo anticipates that the bioprinting of human tissues will accelerate the preclinical drug testing and discovery process, enabling treatments to be created more quickly and at lower cost. Additionally, Organovo has long-term expectations that this technology could be suitable for surgical therapy and transplantation.
Also, a new bioprinting method was developed by engineers from Harvard University. And this method makes possible to print tissue construct with blood vessels. For details you can check this link.